1. Context and Objectives
India has achieved high enrolment rates for girls at primary and upper primary levels of schooling. However, at the secondary level girls' enrolment remains low. Pockets of low performance persist across the country in many states. That all girls are not in school yet, is amply reflected in the low rural female literacy rates, the prevalence of Special Focus Districts (SFD) and Educationally Backward Blocks (EBB), low attendance rates and the number and proportion of out of school girls. What the data reveals about girls’ needs further analysis to identify the bottlenecks for targeted planning, for effective implementation and monitoring.
In this scenario, a Gender Atlas for the country has been developed to highlight the issues, geographies and social background of girls that are still a concern and require urgent attention. The Gender Atlas is based on existing data and highlights problem areas to serve as pointers for intervention priorities. It is seen as a management tool that can focus on 'demand' and 'supply' side issues alike that impinge on girls' education.
1.1 Objectives of the Atlas
1.2 Salient features
2.1 Data sources and analysis
2.2 Mapping and Visualizations
Visualization is based on the Map Management Information System (MMIS)1 technology that enables innovative visualization of data on maps. MMIS technology enables visual analytics in map mode that can be clustered to vulnerable geographic locations and helps users to remotely monitor the situation/progress of ongoing programmes to identify areas that require special focus.
2.3 Atlas design
The Atlas is designed to provide visualization at state, district and block levels.2 The Atlas is designed around the two broad areas of performance of girls' education and vulnerabilities visualized in the following five sections/screens:
i. Screen 1 - Comparative Composite Gender Index based Quartile Ranking
This screen (for the year 2013-14) is based on quartile ranking derived from the composite index of gender related indicators grouped under the Education Development Index (EDI) categories of Access, Infrastructure, Teachers and Outcome Indicators. The composite index is based on 25 indicators that pertain to primary, upper primary and secondary levels of education. Indicators
The composite index is visualized at state, district and block levels. The map also provides visualization of individual EDI categories. An underlying visualization in the screens is the Special Focus District (SFD), Left Wing Extremist (LWE) districts, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao districts and Educationally Backward Block (EBB) status of a given geographical location.
|Generating Composite and Vulnerability Indices|
Each of the selected gender related educational indicators (including those adding to vulnerabilities), is critical to girls’ education in a particular geography. But given the fact that socio-economic disadvantages and the geo-political context of a particular area influences each of the selected indicators differently, it becomes imperative to have an aggregated picture of the performance of these indicators. Therefore, Composite Indices have been computed to address issues related to correlation of various indicators (vulnerabilities related indicators, selected education indicators within the four educational development categories viz. Access, Infrastructure, Teachers and Outcomes used by the National University of Education Planning and Administration).
Generating a Composite Index with Principal Component Analysis, addresses the correlation amongst selected indicators by calculating appropriate weights for the same, by calculating a measurable quantified value that can be used for comparison of different data points on Rank or Quartile. Herein the differences and disparities in the indicators with regard to the range of data and their adverse/positive character (e.g. while dropout, repetition, presence of child workers etc. are the adverse indicators, others such as girls' enrolment, presence of women teachers, functional toilets for girls etc. are positive) are also taken into account. For calculating Composite Index and Vulnerabilities Index, the suggestive EDI framework enumerated by NUEPA has been used for generating the Indices. For details the web link for NUEPA’s EDI Framework given below may be referred.
For developing the Atlas, 25 gender related education indicators that are related to primary, upper primary and secondary levels of education have been identified from the District Information System for Education and classified into the four educational development categories mentioned above. Consequently, while the composite index is available, the trend analysis for individual indicators is also available over 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14.
Vulnerabilities have been highlighted, i) by defining the spatial distribution of SFDs, LWE affected districts, districts identified under the BBBP programme and EBBs; ii) the composite index for three vulnerabilities i.e. rural female literacy rate, percentage girls and boys married below the legal age of marriage and percentage of working children (main and marginal) has been computed using the suggestive EDI framework developed by NUEPA; and iii) Children with Disabilities is the third vulnerability that has been included in the Atlas but in this case, 6 individual indicators have been analysed and visualized.
Screen 2 - Trend Analysis
This screen visualizes the performance status of a single gender related indicator based on quartile ranking across 3 years i.e. 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14. The performance status of 25 individual indicator can be visualized at state, district and block levels. A link to related excel data tables (both raw DISE data as well as computed percentile data) is provided. A noteworthy feature of this screen that 3 years data is visualised in 3 maps along side each other. Consequently when the user navigates to the geography (say state level) for a given parameter, the status across the three years will appear on the screen simultaneously.
Screen 3 - Spatial Distribution of SFDs, LWE, BBBP districts and Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs)
This screen visualises three maps for the same geography (that may be selected using the zoom function) for SFD, LWE affected districts, low sex child ratio (CSR) districts identified under the BBBP programme. On the opening screen which displays the National maps, the number depicts state wise distribution of SFDs, LWE and BBBP districts. By clicking on the number on any state, the name of the state along with the concerned districts will appear on the screen in a box. As the user zooms to the lower administrative levels, the EBBs can be viewed. At the block level, the user gets a clear picture of the possible multiple vulnerabilities that overlap for given blocks. For example, there may be blocks that have all the four vulnerabilities, while some may have three, two or one of them and some may not have any. For planning and prioritising, the vulnerability status of blocks needs to be read alongside the performance on various indicators for those blocks to develop specific, targeted interventions and appropriate monitoring strategies. A link to data tables on national vulnerability profile and state wise distribution of SFDs, LWEs, BBBP districts and EBBs is provided.
Screen 4 - Vulnerabilities Impinging on Girls' Education
This screen visualizes the vulnerability status of an area based on a composite index of 3 broad indicators (i) rural female literacy (ii) percentage girls/boys married below the legal age of marriage and (iii) working children. Separate visualisations are given for working children for the following sub-indicators: disaggregation by gender and age for the 5-9 years, 10-14 years and 15-19 years age groups as well as for marriage below the legal age. These maps are available up to the district level. Link to data tables is provided.
Screen 5 - Children with Disabilities
This screen visualizes the performance status of a single indicator related to children with disabilities, particularly girls, based on quartile ranking across three years i.e. 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14. The performance status of six individual indicators can be visualized at state and district level. A link to related data tables is provided. A noteworthy feature of this screen that 3 years data is visualised in 3 maps along side each other. Consequently when the user navigates to the geography (say state level) for a given parameter, the status across the three years will appear on the screen simultaneously.